EUROPEAN THEATRE

Prewar

School in Germany
School in Germany

German high school November 1939

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Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth

German summer Camp with Hitler Youth 1939

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Albert Heitmenn
Albert Heitmenn

Albert Heitmenn 1939

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School in Germany
School in Germany

German high school November 1939

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Poppy.jpg

The Poppy Pin - to hold honour for those that died during World War I and in the line of duty.  It's been used since then for this purpose. 

1939

World War II began on September 1, 1939 with the attack on Poland by Germany. Because England and France were allied with Poland and wanted to protect the nation the two nations declared war on Germany. This started what is called the Phoney War. The Phoney War lasted for eight months and ended in June of 1940 with the evacuation of Dunkirk (Dunkerque).

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Azimuth Instructions.jpg
Dornier German.jpg

Azimuth Circles were used by the Royal Navy. This naval instrument was placed on top of a compass. The green looking glass was used to calculate enemy locations and speeds

The German Dornier air crafts began production in 1938.

These water landing planes carried payloads up to 500 kg (1100 lbs)

Dornier DO 24 top

Dornier DO 26 bottom

1940

The Battle of Britain began after the evacuation of Dunkirk (Dunkerque) which is located in France. A total of 338,226 soldiers had been evacuated from the beaches of Dunkirk. The battle of Britain was a series of bombings by Germany on England's major cities in an attempt to break down the will power of the nation. The Battle of Britain lasted a little over 3 months ending on October 31, 1940. Germany lost more pilots, planes, and bombers due to the RAF (Royal Air Force).

The RAF suffered casualties of 1,964 men of which 422 were wounded and lost a total of 1,744 air crafts.

Germany suffered casualties of 3,320 men of which 735 were wounded and lost a total of 1,977 air crafts. 925 Germans had been taken prisoner during this time.

1941

Shelter Book Cover
Shelter Book Cover

Published 1940

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Shelter Book  Copyright
Shelter Book Copyright

The Shelter Book was to help educate the public how to build a shelter for air raids as well as pass the time when inside their shelter.

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Shelter Book Children's Riddle
Shelter Book Children's Riddle

The Shelter Book contained Riddles and Poems for Children to pass the time during the bombings

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Shelter Book Story
Shelter Book Story

The Shelter Book contained Stories to pass the time when people were in their shelters waiting for the bombing to end.

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On December 7, 1941 the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.  This brought the U.S.A. into the war.

America would send men to both the Pacific and European Theatre. In the European Theatre America's focus was to help in the North African campaign.

By the summer of 1940 the North African campaign had begun. The Allied powers (United Kingdom and France) had gathered their territorial African nations and used them to fight the invading German troops.

1942

The war in North Africa rages on. The Allied forces over the span of 3 years suffered a total of 254,221 casualties. The United Kingdom lost 35,478 men. The Free French had an unknown exact number of deaths during the North Africa campaign but had a total of 16,000 dead, lost, or wounded. The United States lost 2,715 men. Since the United States joined so late into the war the United States didn't even see two full years of the African Campaign.

1943

Attack on Pearl Harbor
Attack on Pearl Harbor

The Attack on Pearl Harbor forced America into the war in both Europe and the Pacific

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Popular Science
Popular Science

A book published throughout the war to get young children excited about Science and War

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Medals.jpg
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Rationing began in the United States in 1940. This Opa Blue Point Token (right) was used as "change" for when rations cost less than what people paid for.

These sharp shooter medals (above) were given for rifle training (left) and grenade training (right)

In May of 1943 at the Trident Conference held in Washington DC, also known as the Washington Conference, the Allied powers began discussion of an operation that would change the course of the Second World War. The conference was held and run by Winston Churchill and Franklin D Roosevelt.

During this conference plans for the invasion of Sicily, extent of the military forces, the Pacific Theatre, and the Normandy Invasion were discussed.

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The Royal Air Force (RAF) used identification cards (right) to train RAF pilots on identifying silhouettes of enemy air.

RAF declassified papers (left) described locations and air crafts identified in incoming attacks. These papers date from 1943-1945.

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1944

On June 6, 1944 the invasion discussed a year earlier commenced on the shores of Normandy France. D Day as it is known or Operation Overlord began at 6 in the morning and would last a total of 3 months ending in August. A successful power change occurred in the war in favor of the Allied forces.

Men stormed the beach into a hail of gunfire.  It was a very gutsy move on the Allies part.  Such bravery.  Hedgehogs, iron blockades placed on the beach by the Germans, blocked entrance into enemy territory.   It was a bloody day and 132,000 died.  It was instrumental in defeating the Axis of Power.

Information:

ALLIES: "Big 3" Great Britain (PM Churchill)

                             United States (Roosevelt/Truman) - wanted to be neutral until attacked by Japan

                             Soviet Union (Gen. Sec. of the Communist Party Stalin) - was in the AXIS power until attacked by Germany

AXIS POWERS:  Germany (Adolf Hitler)

                             Soviet Union (until attacked by Germany)

ALLIES who later joined:  France (Charles de Gaulle)

                                                Poland (1939 attacked by Germany which started WW2)

                                                China (1937 invasion by Japan.  Became an ally after Pearl Harbor)

                                                Australia

                                                New Zealand

                                                Canada

                                                Netherlands

                                                Yugoslavia

                                                Belgium

                                                Greece

U.S. Generals-Gen. Dwight Eisenhower (U.S. Army Europe/Normandy invasion)

                           Gen. George S. Patton, Jr. (N. Africa/Europe)

Top Battles of WW2:

July 1-27, 1942 El Alamein, Egypt/1st battle                                                                      15,000 military deaths (2nd battle 5,000 deaths)

June 6, 1944 Normandy, France                                                                                            132,000

June 22, 1941-January, 1942 Operation Barbarossa, Russia                                          1,600,000

September 8, 1941-January 27, 1944 Leningrad, Russia                                                  850,000

July 10-October 31, 1940 British Airspace                                                                            2,500

November 8-16, 1942 Operation Torch/French, Morocco & Algeria                             2,500

July 5, 1943 Kursk, Russia                                                                                                         325,000

August 21,1942-January 31, 1943  Stalingrad, Russia                                                       750,000

December 16-29, 1944 Bulge, Belgium                                                                                 38,000

April 16, May 7, 1945 Berlin, Germany                                                                                 100,000

September 3, 1939-May 24, 1945 Atlantic Ocean/Naval                                                  73,000

POW Letters
POW Letters
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POW Letters
POW Letters

From November 44' to December 44' American soldier held in German POW camps describe his treatment

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letter 6
letter 6
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letter 5
letter 5
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letter 2
letter 2
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letter 1
letter 1
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